Macrosiphum Macrosiphum Passerini Macrosiphum is my favorite aphid group, getting my start on its diversity and field biology way back in undergraduate years with exploration of the first host alternation of a fern-feeding species. In those days Sitobion was still used for some of the species now considered Macrosiphum; this brings up the point that the name Macrosiphum is now used for what is likely a polyphyletic assemblage of species. Some day it might turn out to be better thought of as 2, 3, or more genera. Macrosiphum rhamni oviparous female. Jensen, A. Lattin and G.
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Macrosiphum Macrosiphum Passerini Macrosiphum is my favorite aphid group, getting my start on its diversity and field biology way back in undergraduate years with exploration of the first host alternation of a fern-feeding species. In those days Sitobion was still used for some of the species now considered Macrosiphum; this brings up the point that the name Macrosiphum is now used for what is likely a polyphyletic assemblage of species.
Some day it might turn out to be better thought of as 2, 3, or more genera. Macrosiphum rhamni oviparous female. Jensen, A. Lattin and G. Host plant alternation in two fern-feeding Sitobion Mordvilko. Kindlmann and A. Dixon, eds. Since then I finished a Ph. My impression of this group is that there has been recent and rapid diversification, especially so in western North America.
There are many tightly host-specific species that are morphologically similar. But you should be able to see from the coverage of species here on AphidTrek that Macrosiphum species come in many beautiful colors and live in some fabulous ecosystems.
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington Macrosiphum living on Fumariaceae in northwestern North America, including one new species Hemiptera: Aphididae. Macrosiphum on ferns: taxonomy, biology and evolution, including the description of three new species Hemiptera: Aphididae. Systematic Entomology Eight new species of Macrosiphum Passerini from western North America, with notes on four other poorly known species Hemiptera: Aphididae.
I collected on geraniums of all kinds for many years before finding this aphid for the first time in in New Mexico. I find it on what I call Geranium richardsonii, a plant that seems to have a wide variation in habitat preference and is irritatingly similar to G.
Macrosiphum aetheocornum from central Oregon in June. Macrosiphum albifrons aptera In natural systems, M. I have suspected that more than one species may be involved, but have not had the time, resources, etc.
A very similar species is Macrosiphum zionense see below , which lives on a lupin-like legume called Thermopsis in the mountains of inland western North America. Macrosiphum albifrons aptera posing for her photo. Macrosiphum badium Jensen I studied this species extensively during my Ph. Maianthemum, false lily of the valley. Reproduction continues until June, when the apterae present at the time mature, and enter what appears to be a reproductive diapause through the summer.
These apterae settle either among the fruits, when present, or on the lower leaves. Reproduction begins again in September, usually on the lower or most yellow leaves. The apterae that survive the summer give birth to oviparae and males. Eggs are laid below the surface of the soil along the plant stem.
Males have only been observed in nature twice, despite many sincere efforts. The first apterous male was collected on the outside of a cloth bag enclosing a plant that had several oviparae on it. In , males were quite easy to find throughout my normal collecting areas in McDonald State Forest. Some plants had several males, both alate and apterous. This occurred even though populations of the aphid overall were not dramatically higher than other years.
Macrosiphum badium aptera from the Cascade Range in Washington. The main distinction between them is the number of setae on the cauda, but other features seem to vary by species as well. I have tried a couple host-plant transfers between Cornus and Salix, with interesting but not yet conclusive results. Some of the specimens on Salix have bold dorsal internal stripes as in the photo below, while other specimens are a simple plain green with mostly dark siphunculi.
Macrosiphum claytoniae Jensen This is another of the 8 species I described in one paper that arose from my thesis research in Hosts include Claytonia sibirica L. Portulacaceae and two other unidentified Claytonia spp. The former is the most important host.
The aphid feeds throughout the year on its hosts, reproducing whenever temperatures allow. During the spring of , normal apterae were found 29 February on a plant that had overwintered. Anholocycly was suspected at this Macrosiphum claytoniae aptera from the forest at the edge of the Willamette Valley, Oregon. During the last day that snow lay on the forest floor, aphids were observed under the snow in cavities formed by overlying fern fronds.
By late summer, most plants have died, leaving only a few very robust ones in drier sites, and a few plants of various sizes near streams. Thus each year this aphid species experiences a very severe population reduction as its plants die out.
It often survives the dry season on plants near streams or seeps. It must remain on these surviving plants until mid winter, when the plants are getting larger, and preparing to flower.
In some years, this species is abundant and widespread in McDonald State Forest in late winter and spring. Macrosiphum clum fundatrix from above the Alvord Desert in eastern Oregon. Subsequently, I learned to find this aphid fairly reliably, and finally described it in Numerous patches of C. Almost all collections of this aphid have been made by beating the plants over a wooden board.
The aphids live so well-concealed on the leaves that the only time specimens were seen without beating was when they lived in some numbers on etiolated stems growing in the relative dark under a bridge near Weatherby, Oregon.
Sites where M. In some cases I labeled slides with only the genus Clematis as host — this is simply due to my initial uncertainty about Clematis taxonomy. Clematis ligusticifolia is found from southern British Columbia and Alberta in the north to New Mexico in the south Kershaw et al. Macrosiphum clum from Coffeepot Lake in eastern Washington. Macrosiphum clydesmithi Robinson This is one of my most familiar species of Macrosiphum, and one of 4 that feed on bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum.
When in grad school in the early s I worked out the taxonomy of all 4 species, including some mix-ups that had occurred in previous literature regarding identities of various fern-feeding Macrosiphum. Macrosiphum clydesmithi fundatrix and her nymphs on Holodiscus in May in northern Idaho. I published the results with a distinguished co-author, Jaroslav Holman, in At that time its life history was not known. Jensen et al. It was found on Holodiscus discolor Pursh Maxim.
Heller in the mountains and more southern parts of its range in Oregon. Holodiscus discolor is also the primary host of M. In areas of western Oregon where the two aphids both live, their phenologies differ markedly from one another in the autumn. Macrosiphum pteridis remigrates to Holodiscus a few weeks earlier than does M. Mating then occurs in M. On Pteridium, M. It is not tended by ants despite the fact that it sometimes co-occurs with M.
Since then I have found that this aphid is one of the common species feeding on Holodiscus discolor ssp. It surely occurs in Arizona, Utah, etc. Macrosiphum clydesmithi ovipara on Holodiscus in October in northern Idaho. Macrosiphum clydesmithi apterous vivipara on bracken fern in July in northern Idaho.
Macrosiphum creelii Davis This species is one of many that are very similar morphologically to M. It is often bigger than a typical M.
During many years of pursuit, I eventually gathered material of all morphs from fundatrix to sexuales. One of my favorite habitats to collect this species are the famous public beaches of Oregon.
Just at the edge of high-tide water line there often grows a large Vicia, and on that there is almost always the largest and most dramatic specimens of M. In our local southern Oregon Ponderosa pine forests, M. Macrosiphum dewsler Jensen This is one of my two new species described in Dewsler and Andy, April It is named after one of our deceased dogs, Dewey also known as Dewsler, Mr.
Dewsler, and Dewsldoerfer. As noted by Munz , this plant occurs on dry slopes and ridges, mostly above 1, meters elevation in montane coniferous forests and pinyon-juniper woodlands. Personal observation makes it clear that this plant begins its growing season early in the spring, and is highly drought tolerant through the summer and fall. The overwintering stage of the plant consists of small above-ground shoots ready to grow immediately when conditions allow. The earliest collection I have made of M.
At this location, early June is very early spring in terms of plant growth, yet L. I have not collected confirmed fundatrices of this aphid, the only possible specimens being these on 3 June I considered these specimens to most likely not be fundatrices, which means that egg hatch and population establishment must have happened remarkably early at this location. Aphid populations persist on the plant stems after petal fall and during fruiting, seemingly able to reproduce throughout the dry summer months.
Bob, Influentialpoints: Nice piccies! The aphid is Macrosiphum rosae rose aphid on its secondary host various Valerianaceae and Dipsacaceae including Succisa. There is another quite rare aphid found on Succisa which you should watch out for called Macrosiphum weberi. Aphids are dark red or violet with black siphunculiu. It lives in small ant attended colonies on stems of Succisa pratensis. Beware - Macrosiphum rosae also has a red form.
Their eyes are reddish and the antennae are dusky. The antennal terminal process is 4. The apical parts of the femora are black cf. Macrosiphum euphorbiae which has the apical parts of the femora pale or only slightly dusky.