Define to be the azimuthal angle in the - plane from the x-axis with denoted to be the polar angle also known as the zenith angle and colatitude , with where is the latitude from the positive z-axis with , and to be distance radius from a point to the origin. This is the convention commonly used in mathematics. In this work, following the mathematics convention, the symbols for the radial, azimuth , and zenith angle coordinates are taken as , , and , respectively. Note that this definition provides a logical extension of the usual polar coordinates notation, with remaining the angle in the - plane and becoming the angle out of that plane. The sole exception to this convention in this work is in spherical harmonics , where the convention used in the physics literature is retained resulting, it is hoped, in a bit less confusion than a foolish rigorous consistency might engender. Unfortunately, the convention in which the symbols and are reversed both in meaning and in order listed is also frequently used, especially in physics.
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Coordenadas esféricas: ejemplos y ejercicios resueltos
Sistema esférico de coordenadas