Mental faculties[ edit ] Phrenologists believe that the human mind has a set of various mental faculties , each one represented in a different area of the brain. The importance of an organ was derived from relative size compared to other organs. Phrenology, which focuses on personality and character, is distinct from craniometry , which is the study of skull size, weight and shape, and physiognomy , the study of facial features. Phrenologists would run their fingertips and palms over the skulls of their patients to feel for enlargements or indentations. In general, instruments to measure sizes of cranium continued to be used after the mainstream phrenology had ended. The phrenologists put emphasis on using drawings of individuals with particular traits, to determine the character of the person and thus many phrenology books show pictures of subjects.
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Pregnant women also often report their baby jumping in response to sudden loud noises. Hepper has investigated just how much of what we hear in the uterus can be remembered. In one famous experiment, he showed that newborns seemed to respond to the theme tune of the Australian soap opera Neighbours if their mothers had watched it during pregnancy. Just that vibration again More recently, Jan Nijhuis of Maastricht University Medical Centre in the Netherlands and his colleagues investigated just how long fetal memories could persist.
They held a vibrating probe against the bellies of pregnant women, to which fetuses generally respond by wriggling. If they are exposed to the vibrations every 30 seconds, however, they eventually get used to them and stop responding it generally takes 10 to 12 stimulations , through a process called habituation — much as people living close to a railway track eventually stop noticing the sound of passing trains.
Nijhuis investigated how long this habituation lasted. As for the usefulness of this memory, Nijhuis says that it is very basic. Brainier babies?
Bumpology: The Myth-Busting Pregnancy Book for Curious Parents-To-Be
Bumpology: What you can teach a fetus
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