ARATUS PHAENOMENA PDF

Writings[ edit ] Several poetical works on various subjects, as well as a number of prose epistles, are attributed to Aratus, but none of them have come down to us, except his two astronomical poems in hexameter. These have generally been joined together as if parts of the same work; but they seem to be distinct poems, the first, called Phenomena "Appearances" , consists of verses; the second, Diosemeia "On Weather Signs" , of verses. We are told by the biographers of Aratus that it was the desire of Antigonus to have them turned into verse, which gave rise to the Phenomena of Aratus; and it appears from the fragments of them preserved by Hipparchus , that Aratus has in fact versified, or closely imitated parts of them both, but especially of the first. The purpose of the Phenomena is to give an introduction to the constellations , with the rules for their risings and settings; and of the circles of the sphere, amongst which the Milky Way is reckoned. The positions of the constellations, north of the ecliptic , are described by reference to the principal groups surrounding the north pole Ursa Major , Ursa Minor , Draco , and Cepheus , whilst Orion serves as a point of departure for those to the south.

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Writings[ edit ] Several poetical works on various subjects, as well as a number of prose epistles, are attributed to Aratus, but none of them have come down to us, except his two astronomical poems in hexameter. These have generally been joined together as if parts of the same work; but they seem to be distinct poems, the first, called Phenomena "Appearances" , consists of verses; the second, Diosemeia "On Weather Signs" , of verses.

We are told by the biographers of Aratus that it was the desire of Antigonus to have them turned into verse, which gave rise to the Phenomena of Aratus; and it appears from the fragments of them preserved by Hipparchus , that Aratus has in fact versified, or closely imitated parts of them both, but especially of the first.

The purpose of the Phenomena is to give an introduction to the constellations , with the rules for their risings and settings; and of the circles of the sphere, amongst which the Milky Way is reckoned.

The positions of the constellations, north of the ecliptic , are described by reference to the principal groups surrounding the north pole Ursa Major , Ursa Minor , Draco , and Cepheus , whilst Orion serves as a point of departure for those to the south.

The opening of the poem asserts the dependence of all things upon Zeus. From the lack of precision in the descriptions, it would seem that Aratus was neither a mathematician nor observer [5] or, at any rate, that in this work he did not aim at scientific accuracy. He not only represents the configurations of particular groups incorrectly, but describes some phenomena which are inconsistent with any one supposed latitude of the spectator, and others which could not coexist at any one epoch.

These errors are partly to be attributed to Eudoxus himself, and partly to the way in which Aratus has used the materials supplied by him. Hipparchus about a century later , who was a scientific astronomer and observer, has left a commentary upon the Phenomenas of Eudoxus and Aratus, accompanied by the discrepancies which he had noticed between his own observations and their descriptions.

Diosemeia[ edit ] The Diosemeia consists of forecasts of the weather from astronomical phenomena, with an account of its effects upon animals. It appears to be an imitation of Hesiod , and to have been imitated by Virgil in some parts of the Georgics.

Nothing is said in either poem about Hellenistic astrology. Later influence[ edit ] The two poems were very popular both in the Greek and Roman world, [6] as is proved by the number of commentaries and Latin translations. He enjoyed immense prestige among Hellenistic poets, including Theocritus , Callimachus and Leonidas of Tarentum. This assessment was picked up by Latin poets, including Ovid and Virgil. Latin versions were made by none other than Cicero mostly extant , [2] [7] Ovid only two short fragments remain , the member of the imperial Julio-Claudian dynasty Germanicus extant, with scholia , and the less-famous Avienus extant.

Quintilian was less enthusiastic. Let us begin with god, whom we mortals never leave unspoken. For every street, every market-place is full of god. Even the sea and the harbour are full of this deity. Everywhere everyone is indebted to god. For we are indeed his offspring He is cited by Vitruvius , Stephanus of Byzantium and Stobaeus. Several accounts of his life are extant, by anonymous Greek writers.

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MAIR [1] From Zeus let us begin; him do we mortals never leave unnamed; full of Zeus are all the streets and all the market-places of men; full is the sea and the havens thereof; always we all have need of Zeus. For we are also his offspring; and he in his kindness unto men giveth favourable signs and wakeneth the people to work, reminding them of livelihood. He tells what time the soil is best for the labour of the ox and for the mattock, and what time the seasons are favourable both for the planting of trees and for casting all manner of seeds. For himself it was who set the signs in heaven, and marked out the constellations, and for the year devised what stars chiefly should give to men right signs of the seasons, to the end that all things might grow unfailingly. Wherefore him do men ever worship first and last. Hail, O Father, mighty marvel, mighty blessing unto men.

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