ALAN GUTH THE INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE PDF

The shortcoming that inflation is intended to fill in is the basic fact that although the Big Bang theory is called the Big Bang theory it is, in fact, not really a theory of a bang at all; it never was. I agree with what Paul said at the end of his talk about comparing these two models; it is yet to be seen which one works. But there are two grounds for comparing them. One is that in both cases the theory needs to be better developed.

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The fate of the universe depended on its density. If the density of the universe was large enough, it would collapse into a singularity , and if the actual density of the matter in the cosmos was lower than the critical density, the universe would increasingly get much bigger. The GUT explained all the fundamental forces known in science except for gravity. It established that in very hot conditions, such as those after the Big Bang, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force were united to form one force.

Weinberg also was the one who emphasized the idea that the universe goes through phase transitions, similar to the phases of matter, when going from high energy to low energy. Guth decided to solve this problem by suggesting a supercooling during a delayed phase transition.

This seemed very promising for solving the magnetic monopole problem. Tye suggested that they check that the expansion of the universe would not be affected by the supercooling. The supercooled state is a false vacuum : It is a vacuum in the sense that it is the state of the lowest possible density of energy; it is "false" since it not being a permanent state. False vacuums decay, and Guth would find that amazingly,[ to whom?

This solved the monopole problem , since the expansion proportionately reduces the monopole density. Guth realized from his theory that the reason the universe appears to be flat was that it had enlarged to such an overwhelming size in comparison to its original size.

The perspective is analogous to the apparent flatness of the Earth, on a human scale, when seen from its surface. The observable universe was actually only a very small part of the actual universe. Two weeks later, Guth heard colleagues discussing something called the horizon problem. The microwave background radiation discovered by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson appeared extremely uniform, with almost no variance. There was no time for one end of the cosmos to communicate with the other end, because energy cannot move faster than the speed of light.

The paradox was resolved, as Guth soon realized, by the inflation theory. Since inflation started with a far smaller amount of matter than the Big Bang had presupposed, an amount so small that all parts would have been in touch[ vague ] with each other.

The universe then inflated, at a rate corresponding to a billion times the speed of light, and the homogeneity remained unbroken. The universe after inflation would have been very uniform, even though its parts were no longer able to influence each other.

He ignored magnetic monopoles because they were based on assumptions of GUT, which was outside the scope of the speech. This conclusion was made using a Higgs field with an energy graph that was originally proposed by Sidney Coleman and Erick Weinberg. Guth discussed this with Linde, who had independently been working on bubble inflation, but without considering the flatness problem. Linde and Guth eventually exchanged papers on the subject.

By Guth had published a paper describing how his supercooled universe scenario was not ideal, as the "triggering mechanism" to exit such a state would require "extreme fine tuning of parameters" and felt a more natural solution was required. Guth is the Victor F. So far, he has written about 60 technical papers related to the effects of inflation and its interactions with particle physics.

In July , he was an inaugural awardee of the Fundamental Physics Prize , the creation of physicist and internet entrepreneur, Yuri Milner. He was entered by colleagues who hoped it would shame him into tidying up, [19] but Guth is quite proud of the award.

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Inflation (cosmology)

His early childhood was unremarkable, although he showed a strong aptitude for mathematics. After attending several public schools, he skipped his senior year to enrol in a five-year program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT , partly because he was concerned about being drafted for the Vietnam War, of which he strongly disapproved. In , he married his high school sweetheart, Susan Tisch, and they were to have two children: Lawrence and Jennifer However, after graduating, Guth had a hard time finding a permanent job, partly because of the intense competition for university professor positions due to the baby boom, and he spent nine years traveling across the country pursuing temporary post-doctorate jobs related to physics, including time spent at Princeton to , Columbia to , Cornell to and at the Linear Accelerator Center at Stanford to His early focus at Princeton was on particle physics, particularly the study of quarks , the elementary particles that make up protons and neutrons.

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THE INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE

The fate of the universe depended on its density. If the density of the universe was large enough, it would collapse into a singularity , and if the actual density of the matter in the cosmos was lower than the critical density, the universe would increasingly get much bigger. The GUT explained all the fundamental forces known in science except for gravity. It established that in very hot conditions, such as those after the Big Bang, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force were united to form one force. Weinberg also was the one who emphasized the idea that the universe goes through phase transitions, similar to the phases of matter, when going from high energy to low energy.

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