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The oil was then burned to scent the air. Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. An accord may be a simple mixture or consist of many components and applies when each component material is in balance and harmony with each other material so that no single component can be detected. Aroma Chemical: Any chemical compound created and used for its aromatic properties. Balanced: This is when a fragrance has been so carefully blended that no single aromatic body or effect is readily identifiable.
Bottom base Note: The underlying components of a fragrance, responsible for its lasting qualities, often referred to as fixatives. Bridge: The ability of a scent single oil or accord to connect two notes of a fragrance and thus smoothing the transition from one phase to another Character: The distinct impression that the fragrance gives fresh, fruity, floral etc… Diffusion: The degree in which the fragrance radiates from the product or the user after the application of the product Dry down: The final phase of a fragrance — the bottom note, the character which appears several hours after application Perfumers evaluate the bottom base notes and the tenacity of the fragrance during this stage.
Fixatives may be simply materials that are relatively longer lasting than the other components or they may have some physical or chemical effect of forming bonds with the other materials.
Note s : One of three distinct periods in the evaporation of a perfume, see: top note, middle note, bottom note. This also indicates an olfactory impression of a single smell. Top Note: The impression of a fragrance when first smelled or applied to the skin usually the most volatile ingredients in a perfume the materials in the formulation that show themselves in the first stages of evaporation Volatility: The degree in which a component freely diffuses into the atmosphere How Fragrances are CreatedFragrances are compounds added to products to improve their odor and create an aesthetic impression.
The structure of a fragrance is like that of a pyramid with the base being larger than the top. These notes are those that you smell when you first open the bottle or use the product.
There are many aromatherapy books on the market and information on the internet that give you indications of which oils blend well together. First: decide what heart note s you want to use i.
Be clear about what you are trying to achieve and what type of product this will go into. What is the purpose of the perfume and what is the mood that you want to create. What age group will be using it? Second: choose your complementary base note s.
A couple of ways to find out what compliments your heart note might be to cut strips of paper and put your scent on the papers. Combine the strips and see how they smell together. Another method is to take the tops of the bottles and hold them together. Mover the bottles through the air under your nose and sniff Third: add the heart note to the selected base note — not the other way around. Fourth: finish off with your complementary top note s.
Last: add the modifier. A modifier is a scent added to give the fragrance that gives it its uniqueness. Modifiers are use sparingly. Start with just a touch and keep adding. If you can smell the modifier in the blend then you have used too much.
If this happens increase your heart note. Always take notes as you work! It would be tragic to come up with that incredible scent and not know how you came about it. Start by blending just two to three oils. Your scent should contain a top and middle note, or a top, middle or base note. In simple blends they may be just single oils.
We have supplied a few formulas for you to get some ideas where you can start. A well constructed blend will smell like one fragrance. In a balanced blend you should not be able to distinguish its different parts. It may be soft and floral, woody, spicy or fruity. Scents change and develop as they age, revealing the top, middle, and bottom notes respectively over time. It should not change from one scent to another to another during this time.
Types of Fragrance IngredientsA fragrance blend can consist of a mixture of essential oils, synthetic aroma chemicals, or both. In some cases a synthetic is used because the essential oil is prohibitively expensive.
Because of animal humane reasons natural oil may be replaced by a non-animal synthetic. When many of us hear the word chemical we think that is unnatural or toxic.
Chemists know that everything around us is made up of chemicals, we eat them, we drink them, and WE are them. When essential oils are extracted all the components of the chemicals are present and are affected by soil quality, sunshine, water and so on. So year to year the oil may vary.
In perfumery, components of the oil may be extracted to control the consistency of the aroma and to remove any undesirable qualities. Aroma chemicals are sourced from isolates of essential oils, chemically modified isolates of essential oils and from the petrochemical industry.
When mixing perfumes care should be used with all fragrance components as you would when using pure essential oils. Overall there are probably more hazards when mixing pure essential oils than most aroma chemicals. Fragrance oils are aroma chemicals blended to create a desired aroma. In addition to Top, Middle and Base Notes, perfumes are also put into categories that describe the fragrance, such as: Citrus: Derived from ingredients such as lemon, bergamot and orange.
They are lighter and refreshing and most always considered top notes. They are volatile and not very long lasting. Fruity: Most often these are notes based on comforting flavors. They are perceived as being fresh, natural, clean and crisp. They tend to be strong and good for covering strong base odors. Herbaceous: These are crisp, leafy, greens scents. They are fresh, clean and natural smelling. They are very diffusive and make good top notes.
They can be familiar, gentle, and clean. There are several sub-types and they powerful smell. They can be used in very small amounts in blends or worn alone. Oriental: Oriental notes are loosely described as being ingredients originally sourced from the Far East. Examples include Sandalwood, Vanilla and Frankincense. They are long lasting. Types of PerfumeThe difference between a perfume, cologne and splash is the ratio of water and alcohol to the fragrance.
The following is a chart that illustrates the ratios. It has become virtually impossible to acquire pure grain alcohol for making perfumes. As a substitute for alcohol try to buy the strongest strength Vodka that you can find.
Do not ever substitute the alcohol with the pharmacy variety called isopropyl alcohol. Fragrance Type.
MAKING PERFUME – UNDERSTANDING FRAGRANCE